Effects of land use changes and land vegetation on water birds and waders diversity of anzali, alagol, almagol and ajigol international wetlands

Autor:Narjes Nazari - Bahman Shams Esfandiari - Javad Varvani - Abas Ahmadi - Hamid Toranjzar
Cargo:PhD, Department of Environment, Islamic Azad University, Falagh Branch, Iran - PhD, Department of Environment, Islamic Azad University, Falagh Branch, Iran - Associate Professor, Department of Environment, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak. Iran - Faculty member, Department of Environment, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak. ...
Páginas:281-313
RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the diversity of wintering water birds and waders in Alagol, Almagol, Ajigol and Anzali wetlands and the impact of land use changes on the distribution of these wetlands.Materials and Methods: ETM + satellite images after atmospheric and geometrical correction were used to evaluate the changes. The NDVI index identified the overall vegetation cover of... (ver resumo completo)

 
TRECHO GRÁTIS
Periódico do Núcleo de Estudos e Pesquisas sobre Gênero e Direito
Centro de Ciências Jurídicas - Universidade Federal da Paraíba
V. 9 - Nº 02 - Ano 2020
ISSN | 2179-7137 | http://periodicos.ufpb.br/ojs2/index.php/ged/index
281
EFFECTS OF LAND USE CHANGES AND LAND VEGETATION
ON WATER BIRDS AND WADERS DIVERSITY OF ANZALI,
ALAGOL, ALMAGOL AND AJIGOL INTERNATIONAL
WETLANDS
Narjes Nazari1
Bahman Shams Esfandiari2
Javad Varvani3
Abas Ahmadi4
Hamid Toranjzar5
Abstract: The purpose of this study was
to determine the diversity of wintering
water birds and waders in Alagol,
Almagol, Ajigol and Anzali wetlands
and the impact of land use changes on the
distribution of these wetlands.Materials
and Methods: ETM + satellite images
after atmospheric and geometrical
correction were used to evaluate the
changes. The NDVI index identified the
overall vegetation cover of the wetlands
on and out of the coast. Then, dominant
plants and representative of wetland
1 PhD, Department of Environment, Islamic Azad University, Falagh Branch, Iran.
Email: Mersa.s.t.1366@gmail.com.
2 PhD, Department of Environment, Islamic Azad University, Falagh Branch, Iran.
Email: submitarticlejournal@gmail.com (Corresponding Author)
3 Associate Professor, Department of Environment, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad
University, Arak. Iran. Email: Varvani_55@yahoo.com
4 Faculty member, Department of Environment, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University,
Arak. Iran. Email: Abahmadi@gmail.com.
5 Faculty member, Department of Environment, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University,
Arak. Iran. Email: h-toranjzar@iau-arak.ac.ir.
status were identified and evaluated by
unsupervised classification. The
diversity of water birds and waders was
assessed using Total Count Method.
Species diversity index, species
uniformity and interspecific similarity
were calculated and reported.Results:
The catchment area of the studied
wetland has decreased significantly
during the last 10 years and the type of
vegetation and area of the catchment area
has increased toward nutritional state.
The highest number of migratory water
Periódico do Núcleo de Estudos e Pesquisas sobre Gênero e Direito
Centro de Ciências Jurídicas - Universidade Federal da Paraíba
V. 9 - Nº 02 - Ano 2020
ISSN | 2179-7137 | http://periodicos.ufpb.br/ojs2/index.php/ged/index
282
birds belonged to the duckweed, with an
average of 65.99% of the total migratory
bird population belonged to this species,
especially the water feeding
ducks.Conclusion: Due to the lack of
legal compliance with the wetland and
the increasing use of agricultural and
human-made land uses, this changing
and growing land use will have adverse
effects on the wetland ecosystem.
Keywords: Alagol, Almagol, Ajigol,
Anzali, Wetland.
Introduction
Wetlands are among the richest
ecosystems that are important for
biodiversity conservation (Amat and
Green, 2010). However, it may be
argued that wetlands are more neglected
than other natural habitats. The most
important reasons in this regard are land
conversion and invasion of wetlands due
to the inefficiency of existing laws in
protecting wetlands, and the decline in
the quality of existing wetlands is due to
various causes, such as the entering of
other types of pollution (Ballan et al.,
2002). Therefore, it is important to
evaluate the changing trends of wetland
use and the continuous monitoring of
surrounding lands. Accurate and timely
understanding of changes in land surface
effects is important for better
understanding of human communication
and interactions with natural phenomena
in order to properly manage and utilize
resources at the spatial and temporal
scales (Gallego, 2004). With 250
wetlands, Iran is ranked first in the
importance of wetland systems in the
Middle East, among these wetlands,
Anzali, Alagol, Almagol and Ajigul
International Wetlands that are
registered in the Ramsar Convention and
it is very important in many aspects, It is
also observed that the conversion of land
and the introduction of sediments and
types of pollutants and nutrients into the
wetland have reduced the natural life of
these valuable aquatic ecosystems, So
that, if the current situation continues,
these wetlands will disappear much
sooner than their natural destiny
(Ghorbani, Taghipour, Mahmoudzadeh,
2012). Birds are one of the most
important indicators of wetland habitat
suitability. Studying and comparing the
density and diversity of birds in a few
years in a habitat can well represent the
desirable or unfavorable habitat quality
and other necessary conditions for each
Periódico do Núcleo de Estudos e Pesquisas sobre Gênero e Direito
Centro de Ciências Jurídicas - Universidade Federal da Paraíba
V. 9 - Nº 02 - Ano 2020
ISSN | 2179-7137 | http://periodicos.ufpb.br/ojs2/index.php/ged/index
283
species (Brown and Dinsmore, 1986).
Therefore, the study of the changes in the
diversity and population of aquatic birds
in different years can be considered as a
biomarker of health status or the
presence of threats in wetland
ecosystems. Therefore, the purpose of
this study was to investigate the impact
of land use changes and land vegetation
cover on water birds and wader’s
diversity of Anzali, Alagol, Almagol and
Ajigul wetlands.
Materials and Methods
Study area, Alagol wetlands
(2500 hectares), Almagol (207 hectares),
Ajigol (320 hectares) near Iran-
Turkmenistan border in Golestan
province and Anzali wetland (15000
hectares) in geographical position.
37°25´ to 37°30´ north latitude and
49°25´ to 49°30´ east longitude on the
southwest coast of the Caspian Sea in
Gilan province, Iran.
Figure 1: Location of Almagol, Ajigul and Alagol Wetlands
Figure 2: Anzali Wetland Location

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