The italian way to internal devaluation and social actors' strategies against austerity and the flexibilization of the labour market

Autor:Giulia Frosecchi - Giovanni Orlandini
Cargo:Doutoranda na Escola de Estudos Internacionais da Universidade de Trento - Professor Associado de Direito do Trabalho na Universidade de Siena
the itAliAn wAy to internAl devAluAtion And SociAl ActorS’ StrAtegieS
AgAinSt AuSterity And the flexibilizAtion of the lAbour mArKet
o cAminho itAliAno pArA A deSvAlorizAção internA e eStrAtégiAS de AtoreS
SociAiS contrA A AuSteridAde e A flexibilizAção do mercAdo de trAbAlho
giuliA froSecchi
Doutoranda na Escola de Estudos Internacionais da Universidade de Trento.
giovAnni orlAndini
Professor Associado de Direito do Trabalho na Universidade de Siena.
1. Introduction: the Italian way to internal de-
valuation; 1.a Precarization of labour and weakening of
trade union action at company level (amendment of dis-
missal law); 1.b Circumvention of the CCNL by means of
exceptional employment contracts; 1.c Downward com-
petition on labour costs by means of outsourcing and value
chains; 1.d Promotion of decentralized collective bargai-
ning and its power to derogate from the law and freezing
of collective bargaining in the public sector; 2. The trade
union(s) strategies; 2.a Bargaining strategy; 2.b Judicial
strategy; 2.c Confrontational strategy; 3. New challenges
for workers and new challenges for their organization(s);
3.a Italian trade unions’ strategies; 3.b Alternative expe-
riences of (and in favour of) precarious workers; 4. An-
ti-austerity protests: the involvement of trade unions and
social movements; 5. Concluding remarks; Bibliography.
1. Introdução: o caminho italiano para a desvalo-
rização interna; 1.a Precarização do trabalho e enfraque-
cimento da ação sindical na empresa (alteração da lei de
dispensa); 1.b Contenção do CCNL por meio de contratos
de trabalho excepcionais; 1.c Concorrência decrescente
sobre os custos da mão de obra por meio de terceirização
e cadeias de valor; 1.d Promoção da negociação coletiva
descentralizada e seu poder de derrogar a lei e o conge-
lamento da negociação coletiva no setor público; 2. As
estratégias do sindicato (s); 2.a Estratégia de negociação;
2.b Estratégia judicial; 2.c Estratégia de confronto; 3. No-
vos desafios para os trabalhadores e novos desafios para
a(s) sua(s) organização(ões); 3. As estratégias dos sindica-
tos italianos; 3.b Experiências alternativas de (e a favor de)
trabalhadores precários; 4. Protestos anti-austeridade: o
envolvimento de sindicatos e movimentos sociais; 5. Ob-
servações conclusivas; Bibliografia.
Italy, differently from other Southern European countries,
has not suffered the Troika’s intervention, nor it has resorted
to financial assistance from European Institutions. Notwi-
thstanding that, the latest Italian Governments have adop-
ted labour market reforms which have faithfully transposed
the Council Recommendations adopted during the European
Semester. Most likely, the recent measures have been more
1 Artigo recebido em 25/04/2018.
Artigo aprovado em 18.10.2018 e 23.10.2018.
The contribution is the result of a joint reflection of the two authors; in particular, Giovanni Orlandini is the author of chapters 1 and 2, while Giulia Fro-
secchi is the author of chapters 3, 4 and 5.
2 See Council Recommendation of 12 July 2011 on the National Reform Programme 2011 of Italy and delivering a Council opinion on the updated Stability
Programme of Italy, 2011-2014 Council Recommendation of 9 July 2013 on the National Reform Programme 2013 of Italy and delivering a Council opinion
on the Stability Programme of Italy, 2012-2017.
3 The Conte Government. led by Lega and 5 Stars Movement (installed in March 2018), apeears very critical towards the labour market reforms of previous
govrnements. The Minester of Labour, Luigi Di Maio (5 Stars leader), as first action, has promoted the adoption of a Law Decreee that limits the use of short-term
contracts and increses the amount of indemnities in case of unfair dismissal (Decree Law 12 July 2018, No. 87, so called Decreto Dignità, converted into Law 9
august 2018, No. 96).
incisive and comprehensive than in other Southern EU Mem-
ber states2. Indeed, because of the Monti Government’s refor-
ms adopted in 2012 (Law 92/2012) (Piazza Myant 2016) and,
especially, thanks to the Renzi Government’s laws (the so cal-
led Jobs Act, that is Law 183/2014 and enforcement Decrees
from 2015) (Pizzoferrato 2015), the labour law framework
has been modified in depth3.
These reforms are functional to achieve the main aim
pursued by the EU through the austerity policies: lowering

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